Project Resilient Electric Vehicle Charging (REV) will analyse the impact of Electric Vehicle (EV) charging on grid short term (1 cycle to 10 seconds) frequency and voltage stability, and cascade fault prevention and recovery.
An individual charger has a relatively small impact on the grid. So, the analysis will therefore focus on categories of failures which could cause a correlated change by multiple chargers at the same time and/or local area.
Project outputs will be a failure modes effects analysis, raising awareness of the risks and suggestions for grid code updates mitigating key risks.
The project is still ongoing but is already making good progress toward achieving the defined success criteria.
Identification of one or more “black swan” risks
The WP1 brainstorming activity identified a number of risks which were not well known or understood within the industry. These have been documented in the WP1 report and described in a webinar which was used to further raise awareness.
Contribution to behind the meter DSR regulation processes
The Project REV WP1 report is already proving influential. In the recent BEIS consultation “Delivering a smart and secure electricity system: the interoperability and cyber security of energy smart appliances and remote load control”, Question 9 on Grid Stability quotes and draws heavily on the findings of WP1.
Delivering a smart and secure electricity system: the interoperability and cyber security of energy smart appliances and remote load control - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)
Project REV is thus contributing to behind the meter DSR regulation processes and its influence will go beyond EVs to include other DSR appliances such as heat pumps.
Impact on ESO risk management processes related to EV and DSR
Project REV is also having a direct impact on the Grid Code working groups used by the industry to address emerging risks. Knowledge generated in the project has contributed to the following groups:
- GC0151 & GC0155 Fault Ride-Through
- GC0154 Interconnector Ramping
- GC0156 Restoration
Project REV findings are also being shared with the Energy Networks Association to assist in future development of Engineering Recommendation G99 (“Requirements for the connection of generation equipment in parallel with public distribution networks on or after 27 April 2019”).
More broadly, the Project REV WP1 report has been shared and received with interest by international organisations including:
- Global Power Systems Transformation Consortia
- Electric Power Research Institute
- National Electric Reliability Corporation
Learning from the project has also been shared cross-sector, for example via the Safety Critical Systems Club, which is the UK's professional network for sharing knowledge about system safety.
The estimated potential financial benefit of EV DSR by 2030
This topic will be addressed in the WP2 report alongside analysis of the potential impacts of the issues identified in WP1.
Project REV has been a first of its kind analysis of the potential impact of EVs on GB grid stability. It has identified a very wide range of issues and highlighted both the speed and the scale of the change which will occur over the next few years.
The challenge for future related projects is to address these issues, while learning from lessons identified within Project REV.
- Smart charging is a complex, rapidly evolving system of systems; knowledge sharing across technology domains is important to aid development of solutions enhancing resilience. A wide range of expertise was brought together, including transmission and distribution systems, communications, home energy systems and vehicle electronics design; this experience was then supplemented with contributions from a wide range of invited experts. This breadth of knowledge was essential to identify risks in this emerging and complex environment.
- There are a wide range of stakeholders, whose objectives are not naturally well aligned.
- Short term fixes can have unintended longer-term consequences, for example the German 50.2Hz problem mentioned in the WP1 report.
- Retrospective changes can be very slow and expensive to implement, for example the Accelerated Loss of Mains Change Program mentioned in the WP1 report.
- Setting up the capability to carry out simulation studies using OLTA was anticipated to be challenging. Even though a generous allowance was made for this in the project timeline, the capability still came on line later than planned.
- OLTA study processes are highly customized to NGESO business practices and the GB network, and Project REV benefitted greatly from access to an experienced OLTA user.